Contents

Background

Executive Summary

Introduction

Citizens and Law Enforcement: Early Foundations 1760-1835

Citizens, Law Enforcement and the State 1836-1945

Citizens and the Police 1946-2004

Changing Public Attitudes
Democratic Control of the Police
Democratic Control of the Police in Canada
Racism
Excessive Force

Issues in Civilian Oversight

The Status of Research
Conduct generating complaints
Number of complaints
Substantiation of complaints
Satisfaction with the process
Support for Civilian Oversight
Civilian Review and its Limitations

Civil Governance: The Future

Increased Collaboration Between External and Internal Oversight
Enhancing Accountability
Selected Initiatives
Visible Minorities

Conclusion The John Howard Society of Alberta Perspective

Works Cited

© The John Howard Society of Alberta, 2005